· Despite only having one brand featured in the study, Apple Inc. holds the top spot
· Nestlé Sa’s portfolio has the most number of brands, valued at US$66.6 billion,
· Volkswagen Ag is the fastest falling portfolio of brands, dropping 36% in value
· Toyota Motor Corp, the fifth fastest growing portfolio of brands, grows 30%
Every year, leading branded business valuation and strategy consultancy Brand Finance puts thousands of the world’s top brands to the test. They are evaluated to determine which are the most powerful and the most valuable by country, by industry and against all other brands worldwide. The companies with the highest total value of brands under management can be found in the Brand Finance Portfolio 100.
The total value of the table is US$3.2 trillion, half of which is from the 44 US companies which total US$1.68 trillion. 14 Chinese companies feature in the table, rendering it the country with the second highest number of portfolios. They make up US$347 billion of the total sum. Nine European Union countries make the table and are home to 29 brands, nine of which are UK-based – more than any other European country. The portfolio table lists the companies with the most brand value under their management. Some companies, like Apple, only include one highly valuable brand, while other companies, like Nestlé S.A., operate hundreds. Apple does operate more brands, however, due to their reporting, it is not possible to identify and value these sub-brands from their financial statements.
The fastest growing portfolio this year is Agricultural Bank of China, with a value of US$32.3 billion after enjoying 42% growth. China Construction Bank and ICBC make the top five, with values of US$35.4 billion and US$36.3 billion after rising 34% and 32%, respectively. China Construction Bank is in fact the world’s most powerful banking brand. Chinese banks are performing well on brand equity measures such as familiarity, consideration, recommendation and preference as a result of investing in their brands. It must be noted that none of the Chinese portfolios in the table dropped in value.
Unilever’s impactful innovations have boosted its performance. The launch of the new Axe range and the ‘Find Your Magic’ brand campaign appealed to a wider audience as it encouraged men to break free from assumptions about how they should behave and express themselves. Unilever grew 18% to a value of US$42.7 billion this year. Vodafone Group is the only other UK company to enjoy an increase in value this year, rising 2% to US$27.8 billion. It is no secret that smartphones are becoming increasingly prominent, and the growing proliferation of smartphones in both developed and emerging markets is the main driver behind a surge in data demand and revenue. Vodafone Group’s global presence positions it well to cater to the rising demand. Moreover, the oligopolistic nature of the industry coupled with Vodafone’s immense size gives the company a competitive edge amongst its peers.
With over 500 brands in its portfolio, Nestlé S.A. owns the largest number of brands in the table. It climbs up the ranks to seventh place after 14% growth to a value of US$66.6 billion. Accelerated growth in North America was largely due to the turnaround in frozen meals, whilst in Latin America, Nestlé cited instant coffee as the core reason for growth. Nestlé’s category dynamics and innovation, which can be seen in its range of bottled water, are also factors that contributed to its strong growth. Furthermore, an increase in health awareness in relation to carbonated drinks gave Nestlé the opportunity to promote its bottled water segment which other companies may have failed to embrace. Nestlé’s success is largely due to the range of product segments it provides, allowing it to more effectively overcome challenging global trends than its competitors.
Volkswagen Ag was the biggest faller in the table this year. Its portfolio value dropped 36% to US$42.2 billion. The latest emissions scandal negatively impacted Volkswagen. However, on a broader spectrum, the light vehicle industry – albeit growing at its slowest rate in the last decade, is forecasted to grow nonetheless. This is somewhat due to the upward surges in China, India and across continental Western Europe which compensate for reductions in Brazil, the US and the UK. Toyota Motor Corp, ranked 10th this year, conforms to the forecasted industry trend, enjoying a 30% increase in portfolio value to US$55.3 billion this year.
Declan Ahern, Head Analyst
T: +44 (0)2073899400 M+44 (0)7490911175 firstname.lastname@example.org
Joslyn Pannu, Communications Manager
T: +44 (0)2073899400 M: +44 (0)7885666236 email@example.com
Note to Editors
2016 brand values are calculated in USD with a valuation date of 1/1/16.
About Brand Finance plc
Brand Finance plc is the world’s leading branded business valuation and strategy consultancy, with offices in over 30 countries. We provide clarity to marketers, brand owners and investors by quantifying the financial value of brands. Drawing on expertise in strategy, branding, market research, visual identity, finance, tax and intellectual property, Brand Finance helps clients make the right decisions to maximise brand and business value an bridges the gap between marketing and finance.
Definition of Brand
In the very broadest sense, a brand is the focus for all the expectations and opinions held by customers, staff and other stakeholders about an organisation and its products and services. However when looking at brands as business assets that can be bought, sold and licensed, a more technical definition is required. Brand Finance helped to craft the internationally recognised standard on Brand Valuation, ISO 10668. That defines a brand as “a marketing-related intangible asset including, but not limited to, names, terms, signs, symbols, logos and designs, or a combination of these, intended to identify goods, services or entities, or a combination of these, creating distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefits/value.”
However, a brand makes a contribution to a company beyond that which can be sold to a third party. ‘Brand Contribution’ refers to the total economic benefit that a business derives from its brand, from volume and price premiums over generic products to cost savings over less well-branded competitors.
Brand Strength is the part of our analysis most directly and easily influenced by those responsible for marketing and brand management. In order to determine the strength of a brand we have developed the Brand Strength Index (BSI). We analyse marketing investment, brand equity (the goodwill accumulated with customers, staff and other stakeholders) and finally the impact of those on business performance. Following this analysis, each brand is assigned a BSI score out of 100, which is fed into the brand value calculation. Based on the score, each brand in the league table is assigned a rating between AAA+ and D in a format similar to a credit rating. AAA+ brands are exceptionally strong and well managed while a failing brand would be assigned a D grade.
Brand Finance calculates the values of the brands in its league tables using the ‘Royalty Relief approach’. This approach involves estimating the likely future sales that are attributable to a brand and calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for the use of the brand, i.e. what the owner would have to pay for the use of the brand—assuming it were not already owned.
The steps in this process are as follows:
1 Calculate brand strength on a scale of 0 to 100 based on a number of attributes such as emotional connection, financial performance and sustainability, among others. This score is known as the Brand Strength Index.
2 Determine the royalty rate range for the respective brand sectors. This is done by reviewing comparable licensing agreements sourced from Brand Finance’s extensive database of license agreements and other online databases.
3 Calculate royalty rate. The brand strength score is applied to the royalty rate range to arrive at a royalty rate. For example, if the royalty rate range in a brand’s sector is 0-5% and a brand has a brand strength score of 80 out of 100, then an appropriate royalty rate for the use of this brand in the given sector will be 4%.
4 Determine brand specific revenues estimating a proportion of parent company revenues attributable to a specific brand.
5 Determine forecast brand specific revenues using a function of historic revenues, equity analyst forecasts and economic growth rates.
6 Apply the royalty rate to the forecast revenues to derive brand revenues.
7 Brand revenues are discounted post tax to a net present value which equals the brand value.