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中国百强品牌价值用五年内增长了两倍

10 March 2017
This article is more than 3 years old.

· 最具影响力的品牌研究发布:2017年中国最有价值的品牌前100

· 中国百强品牌价值五年内翻两倍,总价值达8230亿美元。银行和科技品牌总价值最高

· 中国品牌响应总书记的重要指示,以做强品牌为企业要务。品牌研究表明,效果显著

中国品牌响应了“三个转变”的重要指示:即“推动中国制造向中国创造转变、中国速度向中国质量转变、中国产品向中国品牌转变”,国际品牌研究机构Brand Finance的最新中国品牌研究报告表明,其效果显著。

每年,Brand Finance给主要地区的各个行业中将近10,000个品牌做出估值。今年研究显示,中国百强品牌的总价值在过去五年中增长了两倍,从2012年的2660亿美元增长到今天的8230亿美元。

中国工商银行(ICBC)成为今年中国榜单中最有价值的品牌,并超越富国银行成为最有价值的银行品牌。其品牌价值同比增长32%,达到478亿美元,占其2390亿美元市值(在估值日期)的20%。工商银行是其中一个中国品牌在全球各产业榜单中摘下榜单桂冠的,其他在Brand Finance全球产业榜单上名列前茅的中国品牌,还有CSCEC,茅台和华为,它们都是各自行业中最有价值的品牌。

科技业是紧随银行业后在总品牌价值贡献最高的产业。随着阿里巴巴对中国商业的开放和简化的影响,特别是农村地区的商业,阿里巴巴也成为该行业领导者。其品牌强度指数(BSI)得分较2016年上升3.3%,其品牌价值几乎翻了一番,估值超过348亿美元。跟随互联网商务继续蓬勃发展的趋势,阿里巴巴目前大力投资在全球市场的营销传播,包括加入麦当劳、可口可乐和VISA成为奥运会的赞助商之一,以促进国外业务的增长。

中国品牌有许多共同的特性,这些特性进一步解释中国品牌所取得的傲人成绩。 第一是规模; 中国庞大的人口和日益繁荣的经济为其主要品牌创造了巨大的内需市场。其次是收购活动;中国公司在海外的并购活动在过去两年显着加速,在2016年达到创纪录的高位。如中国化工收购先正达、海尔集团的收购了通用的家电部门。相对于世界其他地区,中国的经济继续快速增长,有机地规模扩张和通过对外国品牌企业的收购能够给中国经济注入新的活力。

然而,文化因素与经济实力一样重要。中国消费者与他们的品牌(包括他们的银行品牌)建立的关系使西方品牌梦寐以求。Brand Finance品牌强度指数的信息显示,中国品牌的信任和忠诚度现已远高于欧洲地区或美国的品牌。官僚文化和其他文化差异的因素可能使在中国的经营在外国品牌面临挑战。除此之外,中国消费者出于爱国情怀而更可能选择国内品牌。例如华为成功地击败了苹果,成为中国消费者心目中推崇和忠诚于的手机品牌。

此次研究使用的是符合ISO 10668 《品牌估值》中特许费率品牌强度评估是品牌估值的第一步。而品牌强度检视一个品牌在其投资、资产及表现(其中包括如营销投资,熟悉度,忠诚度,员工满意度和企业声誉等因素)的纵向维度来与其行业竞争者横向比较,最后在评级系统(D 到AAA+)的基础上,给予相应评级。品牌强度随后用于决定品牌收益对企业的贡献,而最后计算出品牌价值。

编者备注

您可以在Brand Finance China 100报告文件中找到更多关于中国最有价值品牌的故事。 Brand Finance网站上的品牌价值以美元报告。 如要转换为人民币,请将鼠标悬停在“I”按钮上,然后从选项中选择人民币。

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关于Brand Finance

Brand Finance是世界领先的品牌估值和战略咨询公司,在超过27个国家设有办公地点。我们通过量化品牌的商业价值为营销人员,品牌所有者和投资者提供对品牌的清晰解读,及深入分析。 Brand Finance利用管理战略,品牌评估,市场研究,视觉营销,金融,税务和知识产权等方面的专业知识,帮助客户做出最大化品牌和商业价值的优化决策,成为营销与金融之间的沟通语言。

品牌估值方法

品牌定义

在广泛意义上,品牌是客户,员工和其他利益相关者对企业及其产品和服务的所有期望和意见的综合产物。然而,当把品牌看作可以买、卖和特许经营的商业资产时,需要更准确的定义。Brand Finance是国际公认的品牌估值标准ISO 10668的主要撰写者之一。ISO 10668将一个品牌定义为“与营销相关的无形资产,包括但不限于,名称,标志,符号,商标和设计,或是这些无形资产的混合体,目的在于指认这些服务, 产品及企业,或者其混合体,在利益相关者的头脑中创造出独特的形象和联想,从而产生的经济效益和价值。”

然而,一个品牌对一家公司的贡献是这个公司在市场被第三方卖买的溢价。 “品牌贡献”是指企业从其品牌中获得的总体经济利益,从通用销售数量到价格溢价到对不太完善品牌竞争对手的成本节约。

品牌强度/品牌力

品牌强度是我们分析中最直接和最容易受到营销人员和品牌管理层影响的部分。为了确定品牌的实力,我们建构了品牌强度指数(BSI)来帮助量化品牌价值。Brand Finance 在BSI的基础上分析营销投资,品牌资产(与客户,员工和其他利益相关者积累的商誉),及品牌对业务绩效的贡献。根据该分析,每个品牌被指定百分制的BSI指数,其被馈入品牌价值计算。基于得分,排行榜中的每个品牌以类似于信用评级的方式被分配AAA +和D之间的评级。 AAA +品牌力最强大,管理效绩最优异。

方法

Brand Finance使用“特许权费节省法”计算其排行表中的品牌的价值。此方法使用一个品牌的预期销售,并且计算对于“品牌使用”收取的使用费率,即所有者将使用此品牌必须支付的费用(假设它尚未拥有。)

此过程中的步骤如下:

1.品牌强度/品牌力指数(BSI):从人们对品牌的情感联系,品牌自身业界表现和可持续发展的多个维度从0到100对品牌力进行打分。这个分数被称为品牌强度指数。

2. 确定相应行业品牌的特许权费率。这是通过审查可比的许可协议。这些许可协议的数据来自于Brand Finance自有的强大数据库以及其他第三方数据库。

3. 计算使特许权费率。品牌强度指数用于决定使用费率范围,以获得该品牌的特许权费率。例如,假设某行业的品牌特许权费率范围为1-5%,一个品牌的品牌强度指数为80,则该品牌在某行业的使用费率将为4.2% 。

4. 确定品牌特定收入,估算归属于特定品牌的母公司收入比例。

5. 使用历史收入,市场分析师预测和经济增长率的函数确定预测品牌具体收入。

6. 将专利税率应用于预测收入以推导品牌收入。

7. 品牌收入在税后折现为等于品牌价值的净现值。

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Konrad Jagodzinski
Konrad Jagodzinski
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Brand Finance
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Senior Communications Manager
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About Brand Finance

Brand Finance is the world’s leading brand valuation consultancy. Bridging the gap between marketing and finance, Brand Finance evaluates the strength of brands and quantifies their financial value to help organisations of all kinds make strategic decisions.

Headquartered in London, Brand Finance has offices in over 20 countries, offering services on all continents. Every year, Brand Finance conducts more than 5,000 brand valuations, supported by original market research, and publishes nearly 100 reports which rank brands across all sectors and countries.

Brand Finance is a regulated accountancy firm, leading the standardisation of the brand valuation industry. Brand Finance was the first to be certified by independent auditors as compliant with both ISO 10668 and ISO 20671, and has received the official endorsement of the Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) in the United States.

Methodology

Definition of Brand

Brand is defined as a marketing-related intangible asset including, but not limited to, names, terms, signs, symbols, logos, and designs, intended to identify goods, services, or entities, creating distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefits.

Brand Strength

Brand strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures relative to its competitors. Brand Finance evaluates brand strength in a process compliant with ISO 20671, looking at Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and the impact of those on Business Performance. The data used is derived from Brand Finance’s proprietary market research programme and from publicly available sources.

Each brand is assigned a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score out of 100, which feeds into the brand value calculation. Based on the score, each brand is assigned a corresponding Brand Rating up to AAA+ in a format similar to a credit rating.

Brand Valuation Approach

Brand Finance calculates the values of brands in its rankings using the Royalty Relief approach – a brand valuation method compliant with the industry standards set in ISO 10668. It involves estimating the likely future revenues that are attributable to a brand by calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for its use, to arrive at a ‘brand value’ understood as a net economic benefit that a brand owner would achieve by licensing the brand in the open market.

The steps in this process are as follows:

1 Calculate brand strength using a balanced scorecard of metrics assessing Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and Business Performance. Brand strength is expressed as a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score on a scale of 0 to 100.

2 Determine royalty range for each industry, reflecting the importance of brand to purchasing decisions. In luxury, the maximum percentage is high, while in extractive industry, where goods are often commoditised, it is lower. This is done by reviewing comparable licensing agreements sourced from Brand Finance’s extensive database.

3 Calculate royalty rate. The BSI score is applied to the royalty range to arrive at a royalty rate. For example, if the royalty range in a sector is 0-5% and a brand has a BSI score of 80 out of 100, then an appropriate royalty rate for the use of this brand in the given sector will be 4%.

4 Determine brand-specific revenues by estimating a proportion of parent company revenues attributable to a brand.

5 Determine forecast revenues using a function of historic revenues, equity analyst forecasts, and economic growth rates.

6 Apply the royalty rate to the forecast revenues to derive brand revenues.

7 Discount post-tax brand revenues to a net present value which equals the brand value.

Disclaimer

Brand Finance has produced this study with an independent and unbiased analysis. The values derived and opinions presented in this study are based on publicly available information and certain assumptions that Brand Finance used where such data was deficient or unclear. Brand Finance accepts no responsibility and will not be liable in the event that the publicly available information relied upon is subsequently found to be inaccurate. The opinions and financial analysis expressed in the study are not to be construed as providing investment or business advice. Brand Finance does not intend the study to be relied upon for any reason and excludes all liability to any body, government, or organisation.

The data presented in this study form part of Brand Finance's proprietary database, are provided for the benefit of the media, and are not to be used in part or in full for any commercial or technical purpose without written permission from Brand Finance.

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