David Haigh, CEO, Brand Finance plc
In 2007 the International Organization for Standardization ('ISO'), set up a task force to draft an International Standard on monetary brand valuation. After 3 years the ISO 10668 – Monetary Brand Valuation – will be released in Autumn 2010. This sets out the principles which should be adopted when valuing any brand.
The new ISO 10668 applies to brand valuations commissioned for all purposes, including:
• Accounting and financial reporting
• Insolvency and liquidation
• Tax planning and compliance
• Litigation support and dispute resolution
• Corporate finance and fundraising
• Licensing and joint venture negotiation
• Internal management information and reporting
• Strategic planning and brand management
The last of these applications include:
• Brand and marketing budget determination
• Brand portfolio review
• Brand architecture analysis
• Brand extension planning
Under ISO 10668 the brand valuer must declare the purpose of the valuation as this affects the premise or basis of value, the valuation assumptions used and the ultimate valuation opinion, all of which need to be transparent to a user of the final brand valuation report.
ISO 10668 is a 'meta standard' which succinctly specifies the principles to be followed and the types of work to be conducted in any brand valuation. It is a summary of existing best practice and intentionally avoids detailed methodological work steps and requirements. As such ISO 10668 applies to all proprietary and non-proprietary brand valuation approaches and methodologies that have been developed over the years, so long as they follow the fundamental principles specified in the meta standard. ISO 10668 specifies that when conducting a brand valuation the brand valuer must conduct 3 types of analysis before passing an opinion on the brand’s value.
These are Legal, Behavioural and Financial analysis. All 3 types of analysis are required to arrive at a thorough brand valuation opinion. This requirement applies to valuations of existing brands, new brands and brand extensions.
The first requirement is to define what is meant by 'brand' and which intangible assets should be included in the brand valuation opinion. ISO 10668 begins by defining Trademarks in conventional terms but it also refers to other Intangible Assets (‘IA’) including Intellectual Property Rights (‘IPR’) which are often included in broader definitions of ‘brand’.
International Financial Reporting Standard 3 ('IFRS3'), specifies how all acquired assets should be defined, valued and accounted for post-acquisition. It refers to 5 specific IA types which can be separated from residual Goodwill arising on acquisition.
The second requirement when valuing brands under ISO 10668 is a thorough behavioural analysis. The brand valuer must understand and form an opinion on likely stakeholder behaviour in each of the geographical, product and customer segments in which the subject brand operates.
The third requirement when valuing brands under ISO 10668 is a thorough financial analysis.
ISO 10668 specifies three alternative brand valuation approaches - the Market, Cost and Income Approaches. The purpose of the brand valuation, the premise or basis of value and the characteristics of the subject brand dictate which primary approach should be used to calculate its value.
Fig1. Brand Valuation approaches include Market approach, Cost approach and Income approach.
ISO 10668 was developed to provide a consistent framework for the valuation of local, national and international brands both large and small. The primary concern was to create an approach to brand valuation which was transparent, reconcilable and repeatable. In the wake of the standard’s launch it is expected that many companies will either value their brands for the first time or revalue them compliant with the standard.
Common commercial applications of brand valuation are brand portfolio and brand architecture reviews.
Brand Portfolio reviews consider whether the right number of brands and sub-brands are in the portfolio. Brand Architecture reviews considers whether individual brands are too fragmented and extended.
In both these cases, brand valuation analysis can help to evaluate the most effective value adding strategy. Brand valuation can help companies rationalise and rebuild their brand portfolios and trim their brand architecture to best address current market conditions.
Having determined an ideal brand portfolio and architecture at a point in time it is recommended to create a long term brand dashboard to monitor changes in brand equity and value so that swift corrective action can be taken if necessary.
Brand Finance is the world’s leading brand valuation consultancy. Bridging the gap between marketing and finance, Brand Finance evaluates the strength of brands and quantifies their financial value to help organisations of all kinds make strategic decisions.
Headquartered in London, Brand Finance has offices in over 20 countries, offering services on all continents. Every year, Brand Finance conducts more than 5,000 brand valuations, supported by original market research, and publishes nearly 100 reports which rank brands across all sectors and countries.
Brand Finance is a regulated accountancy firm, leading the standardisation of the brand valuation industry. Brand Finance was the first to be certified by independent auditors as compliant with both ISO 10668 and ISO 20671, and has received the official endorsement of the Marketing Accountability Standards Board (MASB) in the United States.
Brand is defined as a marketing-related intangible asset including, but not limited to, names, terms, signs, symbols, logos, and designs, intended to identify goods, services, or entities, creating distinctive images and associations in the minds of stakeholders, thereby generating economic benefits.
Brand strength is the efficacy of a brand’s performance on intangible measures relative to its competitors. Brand Finance evaluates brand strength in a process compliant with ISO 20671, looking at Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and the impact of those on Business Performance. The data used is derived from Brand Finance’s proprietary market research programme and from publicly available sources.
Each brand is assigned a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score out of 100, which feeds into the brand value calculation. Based on the score, each brand is assigned a corresponding Brand Rating up to AAA+ in a format similar to a credit rating.
Brand Finance calculates the values of brands in its rankings using the Royalty Relief approach – a brand valuation method compliant with the industry standards set in ISO 10668. It involves estimating the likely future revenues that are attributable to a brand by calculating a royalty rate that would be charged for its use, to arrive at a ‘brand value’ understood as a net economic benefit that a brand owner would achieve by licensing the brand in the open market.
The steps in this process are as follows:
1 Calculate brand strength using a balanced scorecard of metrics assessing Marketing Investment, Stakeholder Equity, and Business Performance. Brand strength is expressed as a Brand Strength Index (BSI) score on a scale of 0 to 100.
2 Determine royalty range for each industry, reflecting the importance of brand to purchasing decisions. In luxury, the maximum percentage is high, while in extractive industry, where goods are often commoditised, it is lower. This is done by reviewing comparable licensing agreements sourced from Brand Finance’s extensive database.
3 Calculate royalty rate. The BSI score is applied to the royalty range to arrive at a royalty rate. For example, if the royalty range in a sector is 0-5% and a brand has a BSI score of 80 out of 100, then an appropriate royalty rate for the use of this brand in the given sector will be 4%.
4 Determine brand-specific revenues by estimating a proportion of parent company revenues attributable to a brand.
5 Determine forecast revenues using a function of historic revenues, equity analyst forecasts, and economic growth rates.
6 Apply the royalty rate to the forecast revenues to derive brand revenues.
7 Discount post-tax brand revenues to a net present value which equals the brand value.
Brand Finance has produced this study with an independent and unbiased analysis. The values derived and opinions presented in this study are based on publicly available information and certain assumptions that Brand Finance used where such data was deficient or unclear. Brand Finance accepts no responsibility and will not be liable in the event that the publicly available information relied upon is subsequently found to be inaccurate. The opinions and financial analysis expressed in the study are not to be construed as providing investment or business advice. Brand Finance does not intend the study to be relied upon for any reason and excludes all liability to any body, government, or organisation.
The data presented in this study form part of Brand Finance's proprietary database, are provided for the benefit of the media, and are not to be used in part or in full for any commercial or technical purpose without written permission from Brand Finance.